Desarrollo de un Protocolo de Transfusión Masiva

5.9 

Se presenta un modelo de protocolo de transfusión masiva (PTM). En esta sección se analiza la adaptación local del modelo de PTM y el desarrollo de directrices sobre activación y cesación del PTM.

Adaptación local

Un equipo multidisciplinario debe adaptar el modelo de PTM:

  • Incorporar las recomendaciones y puntos de práctica proporcionados en este módulo
  • Tener en cuenta los recursos locales (por ejemplo, el acceso a los componentes sanguíneos)
  • Proporcionar detalles sobre cómo se entregarán los componentes al corregir el paciente y la ubicación
  • Incluir información de apoyo que explique cómo se comunicará el personal clínico, de laboratorio y de apoyo
  • Destacar la necesidad de comunicación temprana con un hematólogo o especialista en transfusión.

La plantilla PTM también se puede modificar para poblaciones específicas como los pacientes obstétricos, dado el potencial de hemorragia oculta y el desarrollo temprano de DIC. La instalación local también debe desarrollar materiales para acompañar el PTM, aclarando las funciones y responsabilidades de los miembros del equipo (por ejemplo, tarjetas de tareas).

Guía para Uso de Componentes Sanguíneos

Activación y cesación

El equipo multidisciplinario también debe desarrollar pautas para la activación y cesación del PTM. Esto ayudará a asegurar que el PTM se utiliza adecuadamente, y el desperdicio de los componentes de la sangre se reduce al mínimo.

La activación del PTM debe tener en cuenta:

  • La causa y la tasa de la hemorragia
  • El mecanismo de la lesión (si está presente)
  • El estado fisiológico actual
  • El requisito probable de soporte de componentes sanguíneos en curso.

El modelo de PTM presenta sugerencias sobre cuándo activar un PTM. Las directrices sobre la activación y el cese del PTM deben comunicarse claramente a todo el personal. El uso del PTM debe ser auditado.

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Referencias

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