Cafeína y Bebidas Carbonatadas

No existe una relación directa entre el consumo moderado de cafeína y la osteoporosis aunque se ha evidenciado que el consumo excesivo de cafeína y de bebidas carbonatadas, colas, tiene un efecto negativo sobre la densidad mineral ósea53,54.

Tabaquismo

El consumo de cigarrillo es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de la osteoporosis. Se ha observado en diferentes estudios su relación con fracturas vertebrales, del antebrazo y de cadera, principalmente en mujeres delgadas. Probablemente el tabaco influye disminuyendo los niveles de estrógenos y de esta manera afectando la masa y densidad ósea55,56.

Alcohol

El consumo excesivo de alcohol (dos o más bebidas al día), es un factor de riesgo para fracturas óseas57. El consumo de alcohol incrementa el riesgo de caídas, lo cual debe ser contemplado dentro de recomendaciones de consumo muy moderado de bebidas alcohólicas en mujeres mayores.

Ejercicio

El mantenimiento de una adecuada salud ósea, exige la exposición a las presiones que ejerce el peso del cuerpo58. La masa ósea se pierde en forma rápida en presencia de inactividad física o ejercicio limitado e igualmente la inactividad o la falta de ejercicio, influyen en una acumulación inadecuada de masa ósea.

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