Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Neurotransmisores

Con el desarrollo del conocimiento de las acciones tóxicas de algunos aminoácidos neurotransmisores excitadores como el Aspartato y el Glutamato, se han desarrollado sustancias antagonistas como el N-metil-D-Aspartato (NMDA) los cuales limitan el daño tisular causado por la isquemia y por las alteraciones bioquímicas subsecuentes.

Ensayos en el modelo experimental de traumatismo medular en ratas con dosis de un miligramo por kg, mostraron que un 50% de los animales recuperaron la capacidad ambulatoria en contraste con el 25% de los controles. (Faden y col.. Gómez-Pinilla y coL).

Otras modalidades que se han utilizado incluyen el empleo de campos eléctricos, oxígeno hiperbárico, bloqueadores de los canales del calcio. Laser de baja potencia. etc.

Todos estos conceptos aumentan la esperanza de poder contribuir a obtener los medios para prevenir la lesión medular secundaria al traumatismo y buscar el camino para encontrar la curación de la parálisis producida por los traumatismos raquimedulares.

Resumen

Los traumatismos raquimedulares han sido conocidos desde la más remota antigüedad y cuando la lesión es completa, todavía no hay tratamiento curativo. Los avances de los últimos años en el conocimiento de los mecanismos fisiopatológicos responsables de las lesiones medulares han abierto la puerta para buscar la solución a este problema que afecta a un gran volumen de la población joven y representa una grave pérdida económica y social para las víctimas de los accidentes de diferentes clases. En esta revisión se describen los conocimientos actuales del problema y se vislumbran posibles vías terapéuticas para utilizar métodos farmacológicos en la escena del accidente con el objeto de prevenir lesiones ulteriores.

Fisioterapia de los traumatismos Raquimedulares

Agradecimiento

El ingeniero J. R. Gómez hizo el diseño gráfico de la figura. La señora Isabel Caballero y el personal de la Biblioteca Calder. De la Universidad de Miami. Contribuyeron a la investigación bibliográfica.

Bibliografía

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