Bibliografía: Renacer de la TH y la Importancia en la Sintomatología Vasomotora en la Menopausia

Consentimento informado

1. Sánchez Torres, Fernando. Temas de ética médica. Giro Editores. Bogotá, Colombia. 1995;46-52.
2. Pellegrini E.D. The Relationship of Anatomy and Integrity in Medical Ethics. Bulletin PAHO 1990;24:361.
3. Faden I Beauchamp. “A History and Theory of Informed Consent”, citado por Sánchez Torres, Fernando. Op. cit.
4. Ley 23 de 1981, Artículo 16 y Decreto Reglamentario 3380 de 1981, Artículo 12.

Progestágenos

1. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of The NorthGiro Editores. Bogotá, Colombia, American Menopause Society. Menopause 2010;17:242-255.
2. Santen, RJ, Craig DA., Stacy P. Archer DF, et al. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95(Suppl ):S1-S66.

Andrógenos

1. Lasley BL, Santoro N, Randolf JF, et al. The relationship of circulating dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, and estradiol to stages of the menopausal transition and ethnicity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:3760-3767.
2. Davison SL, Bell R, Donath S, Montalto JG, Davis SR. Androgen Levels in adult Females: Changes with Age, Menopause, and Oophorectomy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90: 3847-3853.
3. Arlt W. Dehydroepiandrosterone and ageing. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;18: 363-380.
4. Bachmann G, Bancroft J, Braunstein G, Burger H, Dabis S, et al. Female androgen insufficiency: the Princeton consensus statement on definition, classification, and assessment. Fertil Steril 2002;77:660-665.
5. Basson R, Desindes S, Graves G, et al. Canadian Consensus Conference on Menopause, 2006 Update. J Obstet Gynecol Canadian 2006; 28(Supp 1):S51-S92.

Tibolona

1. Swanson SG, Drosman S, Helmond FA, Stathopoulos VM. Tibolone for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and genital atrophy in postmenopausal women: a multicenter, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled study. Menopause 2006;13:917-925.
2. Hammar M, Christiau S, Nathorst-Böös J, Rud T, Garre K. A double-blind, randomised trial comparing the effects of tibolone and continuous combined hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with menopausal symptoms. Br J Obstet Gynecol 1998;105:904-911.
3. Nelson H, Fu R, Griffin J, Nygren P, Smith B, Humphrey L. Systematic review: comparative effectiveness of medications to reduce risk for primary breast cancer. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:703-715.
4. Delmas PD, Davis SR, Hensen J, Adami S, van OS S, Nijland EA. Effects of tibolone and raloxifene on bone mineral density in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:1153-1160.
5. Cummings SR, Ettinger B, Delmas PD, Kenemans P, Stathopulos V, Verweij P, et al. The effects of tibolone in older postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 2008;359:697-708.
6. Archer DF, Hendrix S, Gallagher JC, Rymer J, Skouby S, Ferenczy A, et al. Endometrial effects of tibolone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92:911-918.
7. Kenemans P, Bundred NJ, Foidart JM, Kubista E, von Schoultz B, Sismondi P, et al. Safety and efficacy of tibolone in breast-cancer patients with vasomotor symptoms: a double blind, randomised, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Oncol 2009;10:135-146.
8. Nijland EA, Weijmar Schultz WC, Nathorst-Böös J, Helmon FA, van Lunsen RH, et al. Tibolone and transdermal E2/NETA for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction in naturally menopausal women: results of a randomized active-controlled trial. J Sex Med 2008;5:646-656.
9. Demirol A, Guven S, Guvendag Guven ES, Kirazil S, Gurgan T, Ayhan A. Comparison of the effects of tibolone and estrogen therapy on hemostais in surgical menopause: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Fertil Steril 2007;87:842-848.
10. Winkler UH, Altkemper R, Kwee B, Helmond FA, Coelingh Bennink HJ. Effects of tibolone and continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on parameters in the clotting cascade: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study. Fertil Steril 2000;74:10-19.
11. Langer RD, Landgren BM, Rymer J, Helmond FA. Effects of tibolone and continuous combined
conjugated equine estrogen/medroxyprogesterone acetate on the endometrium and vaginal bleeding: results of the OPAL study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;195(5):1320-1327.
12. Eilertsen AL, Karssemeijer N, Skaane P, Qvigstad E, Sandset PM. Differential impact of conventional and low-dose oral hormone therapy, tibolone, and raloxifene on mammographics breast density, assessed by an automated quantitative method. BJOG 2008;115:773-779.

Origen de los síntomas vasomotores. Teorías actuales

1. Archer DF, Sturdee DW, Baber R, et al. Menopausal hot flushes and night sweats: where are we now? Climateric 2011;14:515-528.
2. Hay DL, Poyner DR. Calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin and flushing. Maturitas 2009;64:104-108.
3 Rupprecht R, di Michele F, Hermann B, et al. Neuroactive steroids: molecular mechanisms of action and implications for neuropsychopharmacology. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2001; 37:59-67.
4. Lambert JJ, Cooper MA, Simmons RD, et al. Neurosteroids. Endogenous allosteric modulators of GABA(A) receptors. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009;34(Suppl 1):S48-S58.
5. Genazzani AR, Pluchino N, Luisi S, Luisi M. Estrogen, cognition and female ageing. Human Reproduction Update 2007;13:175-187.
6. Stearns V, Ullmer L, Lopez JF, et al. Hot flushes. Lancet 2002;360:1851-1861.
7. Rapkin AJ. Vasomotor symptoms in menopause: physiologic condition and central nervous system approaches to treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;196:97-106.
8. Slopien R, Meczekalski B, Warenik-Szymankiewicz A. Relationship between climacteric symptoms and serum serotonin levels in postmenopausal women. Climateric 2003;6: 53-57.
9. Freedman RR. Pathophysiology and treatment of menopausal hot flashes. Semin Reprod Med 2005;23:117-125.
10. Frey BN, Lord C, Soares CN. Depression during menopausal transition: a review of treatments strategies and pathophysiological correlates. Menopause int 2008;14:123-128.
11. Deecher DC, Dorries K. Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats) that occur in perimenopause, menopause, and postmenopause life stages. Arch Womens Ment Health 2007;10:247-257.
12. Gupta P, Harte AL, da Silva NF, et al. Expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and receptor modifying proteins in human adipose tissue and alteration in their expression with menopause status. Menopause 2007;14:1031-1038.
13. Dormire SL. The potential role of glucose transport changes in hot flash physiology: a hypothesis. Biol Res Nurs 2009;10:241-247.

Cerebros y estrógenos

1. Okie S. How to deal with Alzheimer disease. N Engl J Med 2011;365:1069-1072.
2. D’Esposito M, Gazzaley A. May be lost of memory age related be treated? N Engl J Med 2011;365:1346-1347.
3. Cummings JL. Alzheimer’s Disease. N England J Med 2004;351:56-67.
4. Querfurth HW, LaFerla FM. Alzheimer’s Disease. N England J Med 2010;362:329-344.
5. Brinton RD. Learn Mem 2001;8:121-133.
6. Wise PM, Bubai DB, Rau SW, Suzuki S. Are Estrogens Protective or Risk Factors in Brain Injuryand Neurodegeneration? Reevaluation after the Women’s Health Initiative. Endocrine Reviews 2005;26:308-312.
7. Turgeon JL, Carr MC, Maki PM, Mendelsonhn ME, Wise PM. Complex Actions of Sex Steroids in Adipose Tissue, the Cardiovascular System, and Brain: Insights from Basic Science and Clinical Studies. Endocrine Reviews 2006;27:575-605.
8. Joel A. Simon. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Risk of Stroke: The Heart and Estrogen-progestin Replacement Study (HERS). Circulation 2001;103:638-642.
9. Wassertheil-Smoller S, Hendrix SL, Limacher M, Heiss G, Kooperberg C, Baird A, Kotchen T, Curb JD, Black H, Rossouw JE, Aragaki A, Safford M, Stein E, Laowattana S, Mysiw WJ; WHI Investigators. Effect of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Strokein Postmenopausal Women: The Women’s Health Initiative: A Randomized Trial. JAMA 2003;289(20):2673-2684.
10. Shumake SA, Sterner RT, Gaddis SE. Estrogen Plus Progestin and the Incidence of Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Postmenopausal women.The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2003;289:2651-2654.
11. Stephen RR, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Hendrix SL, Limacher M, Heiss G, Kooperberg C, Baird A, Kotchen T, Curb JD, Black H, Rossouw JE, Aragaki A, Safford M, Stein E, Laowattana S, Mysiw WJ; WHI Investigators. Effect of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Global. Cognitive Function in Postmenopausal Women The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2003;289:2663-2672.
12. Mulnard RA, Cotman CW, Kawas C, van Dyck CH, Sano M, Doody R, Koss E, Pfeiffer E, Jin S, Gamst A, Grundman M, Thomas R, Thal LJ. Estrogen Replacement Therapy for Treatment of Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2000; 283:1007-1015.

Terapia hormonal, función cognitiva y demencia

1. North American Menopause Society. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2010;17:242-255.
2. Santen RJ, Allred DC, Ardoin SP, Archer DF, Boyd N, Braunstein GD, Burger HG, Codiltz GA, Davis SR, Gambacciani M, Gower BA, Enderson VW, JarjourWN, Karas RH, Kleerekoper M, Lobo RA, Manson JE, Marsden J, Martin KA, Martin L, Pinkerton JV, Rubinow DR, Teede H, Thiboutot DM, Utian WH. Postmenopausal hormone therapy: an Endocrine Society scientific statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95(Suppl 1):s1-s66.
3. Sturdee DW, Pines A; International Menopause Society Writing Group, Archer DF, Baber RJ, Barlow D, Birkhäuser MH, Brincat M, Cardozo L, de Villiers TJ, Gambacciani M, Gompel AA, Henderson VW, Kluft C, Lobo RA, Mac-Lennan AH, Marsden J, Nappi RE, Panay N, Pickar JH, Robinson D, Simon J, Sitruk-Ware RL, Stevenson JC. Updated IMS recommendations on postmenopausal hormone therapy and preventive strategies for midlife health. Climacteric 2011;14:302-320.

Terapia hormonal e insomnio-depresión

1. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy. An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:s1-s66 originally published online Jun 21, 2010; doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-2509.
2. Position Statement. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: 2010. Menopause: 2010;17:242-255.
3. D. W. Sturdee and A. Pines. Writing Group: D. F. Archer, R. J. Baber, D. Barlow, M. H. Birkhäuser, M. Brincat, L. Cardozo, T. J. de Villiers, M. Gambacciani, A. A. Gompel, V. W. Henderson, C. Kluft, R. A. Lobo, A. H. MacLennan, J. Marsden, R. E. Nappi, N. Panay, J. H. Pickar, D. Robinson, J. Simon, R. L. Sitruk-Ware and J. C. Stevenson Updated IMS recommendations on postmenopausal hormone therapy and preventive strategies for midlife health on behalf of the International Menopause Society. Climateric 2011;14:302-320.

Síntomas vasomotores y consecuencias cardiovasculares

1. Gorodeski EZ, Gorodeski GI. Epidemiology and risk factors of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In: Lobo RA, ed. Treatment of the Postmenopausal Woman: Basic and Clinical Aspects, 3rd ed. Burlington, MA: Academic Press; 2007;405-452.
2. Rossouw JE, Prentice RL, Manson JE, Wu L, Barad D, Barnabei VM, Ko M, LaCroix AZ, Margolis KL, Stefanick ML. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause. JAMA 2007;297:1465-1477.
3. Gast GC, Grobbee DE, Pop VJ, Keyzer JJ, Wijnands-van Gent CJ, Samsioe GN, Nilsson PM, van der Schouw YT.Menopausal complaints are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension 2008;51:1492-1498.
4. Thurston RC, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Everson-Rose SA, Hess R, Matthews KA. Hot flashes and subclinical cardiovascular disease: findings from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation Heart Study. Circulation 2008;118: 1234-1240.
5. Svartberg J, von Muhlen D, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E. Vasomotor symptoms and mortality: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Menopause 2009;16:888-891.
6. Leal M, Díaz J, Serrano E, Abellán J, Carbonell LF. Hormone replacement therapy for oxidative stress in postmenopausal women with hot flushes. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:804-809.
7. Leal M, Díaz J, Serrano E, Abellán J, Carbonell LF.Hormone replacement therapy for oxidative stress in postmenopausal women with hot flushes. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:804-809.
8. Van der Schouw YT, Grobbe DE. Menopausal complaints, oestrogens, and heart disease risk: an explanation for discrepant findings on the benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy. Eur Heart J 2005;26:1358-1361.
9. Gast GC, Pop VJ, Samsioe GN, Grobbee DE, Nilsson PM, Keyzer JJ, Wijnands-van Gent CJ, van der Schouw YT. Vasomotor menopausal symptoms are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. Menopause 2011 Feb;18(2):146-151.
10. Thurston RC, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Everson-Rose SA, Hess R, Matthews KA. Hot flashes and subclinical cardiovascular disease: Findings from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation Heart Study. Circulation. 2008 Sep 16;118(12):1234-1240. Epub 2008 Sep 2.
11. Manson JE, Allison MA, Rossouw JE, Carr JJ, Langer RD, Hsia J, Kuller LH, Cochrane BB, Hunt JR, Ludlam SE, Pettinger MB, Gass M, Margolis KL, Nathan L, Ockene JK, Prentice RL, Robbins J, Stefanick ML; WHI and WHI-CACS Investigators. Estrogen Therapy and Coronary-Artery Calcification. N Engl J Med 2007;356(25):2591-2602.

Terapia hormonal y riesgo cardiovascular

1. Writing Group on behalf of the Workshop Consensus Group. Aging, menopause, cardiovascular disease and HRT. International Menopause Society Consensus Statement. Climateric 2009;12:368-377.
2. Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Lobo RA, et al. (Estrogen in the prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial Research Group). Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:939-953. Nivel de evidencia 1.
3. Grodstein F, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ. Postmenopausal hormone use and secondary prevention of coronary events in the Nurses’ Health Study: a prospective, observational study. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:1-8. Nivel de evidencia 2b.
4. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, et al. (Heart and Estrogen/ Progestin Replacement Study [HERS] Research Group). Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. JAMA 1998;280:605-613. Nivel de evidencia 1.
5. Manson JE, Hsia J, Johnson KC, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and the risk of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2003;349:523-534. Nivel de evidencia 1.
6. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. (Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators). Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:321-333. Nivel de evidencia 1.

Terapia hormonal y riesgo de enfermedad coronaria

1. Grady D, Rubin SM, Petitti DB, et al. Hormone therapy to prevent disease and prolong life in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:1016-1037.
2. JM Sullivan. Coronay arteriography in estrogen-treated postmenopausal women. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1995;38:211-222.
3. Rossouw JE, Prentice RL, Manson JE, et al. Wu L, Barad D, Barnabei VM, Ko M, LaCroix AZ, Margolis KL, Stefanick ML. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause. JAMA 2007;297:1465-1477.
4. Clarkson TB. Estrogen effects on arteries vary with stage of reproductive life and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis progression. Menopause 2007;14:373-384.
5. Shufelt CL, Johnson BD, Berga SL, Braunstein GD, Reis SE, Bittner V, Yang Y, Pepine CJ, Sharaf BL, Sopko G, Kelsey SF, Merz CN; Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation Study Group. Timing of hormone therapy, type of menopause, and coronary disease in women: data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation. Menopause 2011;18:943-950.

DÉJANOS TU COMENTARIO

DEJA UNA RESPUESTA

Por favor ingrese su comentario!