10 Reflexiones sobre Menopausia, Climaterio y Terapia Hormonal, Bibliografía

Dr. Álvaro Monterrosa Castro, M.D

1. The practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Estrogen and Progestogen therapy in postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril. 2004; 82(1):S70-S80.
2. Shoham Z, Kopernik G. Tools for making correct decision regarding hormone therapy. Part I. Background and drugs. Fertil Steril. 2004; 81(6):1447-1457.
3. Monterrosa A. ¿La Terapia hormonal, sigue siendo valida? Controversias en Ginecología y Obstetricia. 2004; 12(67):1571-1575.
4. North American Menopause Society. Position Statement. Estrogen and Progestogen use in peri and postmenopausal women: October 2004; en prensa.
5. Fremont-Smith M, ;Eigs JV, Graham RM, et al. cancer of endometrium and prolonged estrogen therapy. JAMA.1946; 31:805-808.
6. Barrett-Connor E, Solne S, Greendale G, et al. The postmenopausal estrogen / progestin interventions study; primary outcomes in adherent women. Maturitas. 1997; 27: 261-274.
7. The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of estrogen or estrogen /progestin regimens on heart disease risk factor in postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal estrogen / progestin Intervention (PEPI) Trial. JAMA. 1995; 273:199-208.
8. Greendale GA, Wells Bradley, Marcus R, et al. How Many women loss bone mineral density while taking hormone replacement therapy? Result from the Postmenopausal estrogen / progestin Intervention (PEPI) Trial. Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160:3065-3071.

9. The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on endometrial Histology in postmenopausal Women. The Postmenopausal estrogen / progestin Intervention (PEPI) Trial. JAMA. 1996; 275(5):370-375.
10. The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density. Result from the Postmenopausal estrogen / progestin Intervention (PEPI) Trial. JAMA 1996. 1996; 276:1389-1396
11. Greendale G, Espeland M, Slone S, et al. Bone Mass Response to discontinuation of long-term hormone replacement therapy. Results from the postmenopausal estrogen / progestin interventions (PEPI) safety follow-up study. Arch. Intern Med. 2002; 162:665-672.
12. Skouby SO. Climacteric medicine. European Menopause and Andropause society (EMAS) statements on postmenopausal hormonal therapy. Maturitas. 2004; 48: 19-25.
13. Bakken K, Alsaker E, Eggen A, et al. Hormone replacement therapy and incidence of hormone – dependent cancer in the Norwegian women and cancer study. Int J. cancer. 2004; 112:130-134.
14. Federación Latinoamericana de Sociedades de climaterio y menopausia. (FLASCYM). Consenso Latino Americano sober terapia hormonal de reemplazo en postmenopausia. Salta. Argentina. 2004: In prensa.
15. Position Statement en reunión de consenso. Posición Latinoamericana sobre el estado actual de la terapia hormonal. Bahía. Brazil. 2004. In-prensa.
16. Naftolin F, Schneider HPG, Sturdee DW. The writing Group of the International Menopause Society. Guidelines for hormone treatment of women in the menopausal transition and beyond. Position statement by the executive committee of the International Menopause Society. Revised October 2004. Climacteric; 2004; 7:333-337.

17. Colditz GA, Hankinson SE, Hunter DJ. The use of estrogen and progestin and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332:1589-1593.
18. Writing Group for the Women´s Health Initiative Investigators. Risk and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. Principal results from the Women´s Health Initiative Randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002; 288:321-333.
19. The Women´s Health Initiative Steering Committee. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. The Women´s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2004; 291(14):1701-1712.

20. Bundred NJ. Breast cancer and HRT use. Maturitas. 2004; 49:S3-S4.
21. Speroff L. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer. A clinician´s view. Maturitas. 2004; 49:51-57.
22. Martínez G. Terapia hormonal de reemplazo y cáncer. Rev. Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecología 2004; 55(1): 40-59.
23. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, et al. Randomized Trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. JAMA. 1998; 280:605-613.
24. Hulley S, Furberg C, Barret-Connor E, et al. Noncardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy. Heart and estrogen / progestin replacement study. Follow-up. (HERS II). JAMA. 2002; 288:58-66.
25. Grady D, Herrington D, Bittner V, et al. Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy. Heart and estrogen / progestin replacement study. Follow-up. (HERS II). JAMA. 2002; 288:49-57.
26. Nelson HD, Humphrey LL, Nygren P, et al. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy: scientific review. JAMA. 2002; 288:872-881.
27. Uthian WH, Shoupe D, Bachmann G, et al. Relief of vasomotor symptoms and vaginal atrophy with lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxiprogesterone acetate. Fertil Steril. 2001; 75:1065-1079.
28. Archer DF, Dorin M, Lewis V, et al. Effects of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxiprogesterone acetate on endometrial bleeding. Fertil Steril 2001; 75:1080-1087.
29. Pickar JH, Tien Yeh I, Wheeler JE, et al. Endometrial effects of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxiprogesterone acetate. Fertil Steril 2001; 76:25-31
30. Pickar JH, Tien Yeh I, Wheeler JE, et al. Endometrial effects of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxiprogesterone acetate. Two-year sub study results. Fertil Steril 2003; 80(5):1234-1240.
31. Lobo RA, Bush T, Carr BR, et al. Effects of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxiprogesterone acetate on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, coagulation factors and carbohydrate metabolism. Fertil Steril. 2001; 76:13-24.
32. Lindsay R, Gallagher JC, Leerekoper M, et al. Effects of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens with and without medroxiprogesterone acetate on bone in early postmenopausal women. JAMA. 2002;287:2668-2676.
33. Philibert D, Bouchoux F, Degryse M, et al. The pharmacological profile of a novel norpregnane progestin. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1999; 13:316-326.
34. Rubing A. Drospirenona: A new cardiovascular active progestin with antialdosterone and antiandrogenic properties. Climacteric. 2003;6(suppl3):49-54.
35. Byrjalsen I, Bjarnason N, Christiansen C. Progestational effects of combinations of gestodene on the postmenopausal endometrium during hormone replacement therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 180:539-549.
36. Suvanto-Lukkonen E, Sundstrom H, Pentinnen j, et al. Percutaneous estradiol gel with an intrauterine releasing device or natural progesterone in hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas 1997; 26:211-217
37. The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. The menopausal transition. Fertil Steril. 2004; 82(Suppl-1):S107-S110.
38. Mosca, Appel L, Benjamín E, et al. Evidence-Based Guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in women. Circulation. 2004;109:672–693
39. Gómez G, Onatra W, Sánchez F. Climaterio y Menopausia. 2004. Cali.
40. Monterrosa A. 1500 recomendaciones y aseveraciones nutricionales para las mujeres en Menopausia. 2004; In prensa.
41. Monterrosa A, Peñaloza P, Arteaga ME. Cuantificación del calcio presente en la dieta que consumen Mujeres entre 45 y 55 años de edad, residentes en Cartagena, Colombia. Rev. Colombiana de Menopausia. 2003: 9(3):213-223.
42. MC tiernan A, Kooperberg C, White E, et al. Recreational Physical Activity and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The Women´s Health Initiative Cohort Studt. JAMA. 2003; 290:1331-1336.
43. Manson JE, Greenland P, La Croix AZ. Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women. N Engl L Med. 2002: 347 (10):716- 724.
44. Kopernik G, Shoham Z. Tools for making correct decisions regarding hormone therapy. Part II. Organ response and clinical applications. Fertil Steril. 2004; 81(6):1458-1477.
45. North American Menopause Society. NAMS. Position Statement. Treatment of menopause associated vasomotor symptoms: position statement of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2004; 11(1):11-33.
46. Avis NE, Crawford SL, McKinlay SM. Psychosocial, behavioral and health factor related to menopause symptomatology. Women´s Health. 1997; 3:103-120.
47. Gold EB, Sternfeld B, Kelsey JL. Et al. Relation of demographic and lifestyle factor to symptoms in a multi racial ethnic population of women 40-55 years of age. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152: 463-473.
48. Randolph JF, Sowers M, Gold EB, et al. Reproductive hormones in the early menopausal transition relationship to ethnicity, body size and menopausal status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88:1516 – 1522.
49. Taffe J, Garamszegi C, Dudley E, et al. Determinants of self rated menopause status: Maturitas 1997; 27:223-229.
50. Dudley EC, Hopper JL, Taffe J, et al. Using longitudinal date to define the perimenopause by menstrual cycle. Characteristics. Climacteric 1998; 1:18-25.
51. Guthrie JR, Dennerstein L, Hopper JL, et al. Hot flushes, menstrual status and hormone levels in a population based sample of midlife women. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 88:437-442.
52. Dennerstein L, Dudley E, Burger H, et al. Well-being and the menopausal transition. J.Psychosom Obstet Gynecol 1997; 8:95-101.
53. Guthrie JR, Ebeling PR, Hoper JL, et al A prospective study of bone loss in menopausal Australian-born women. Osteoporosis Int. 1998; 8:282-290.
54. Shulman Lee, Harari D. Low dose transdermal estradiol for symptomatic perimenopause. Maturitas. 2204; 11(1):34-39.
55. Stearns V, Ullmer L, Lopez J, et al. Hot flushes. Lancet 2002; 360:1851-1861.
56. Anderson G, Judd W, Kauntz A. Effects of estrogen plus progestin on gynecologic cancers and associated diagnostic procedures. The Women´s health initiative randomized trial. JAMA. 2003; 290:1739-1748
57. Molnar GW, Body temperatures during menopausal hot flashes. J Appl Physiol. 1975; 38: 499-503.
58. Kromberg F, Barnard RM. Modulation of menopausal hot flashes by ambient temperature. J Therm Biol. 1992; 17:43-49.
59. North American Menopause Society. Position Statement. Estrogen and Progestogen use in peri and postmenopausal women: September 20003. Menopause. 2003; 10(6):497-506.
60. Mac Lennan A, Lester S, Moore V. Oral estrogen replacement therapy versus placebo for hot flushes (Cochrane Review. Cochrane database Syst Rev. 2001; 1. CD002978.
61. Loprinzi CL, Kugler JW, Sloan JA, et al. Venlafaxine in management of hot flashes in survivors of breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2000; 356: 2059 – 2063.
62. Barton DL, Loprinzi CL, Quella SK, et al. Prospective evaluation of vitamin E for hot flashes in breast cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16:495-500.
63. Conclusions of the 2nd European consensus meeting on menopause. 2003. Athens, Greece. Menopause Review 2003; 8(2):1-7.
64. www. escalacervantes.com
65. North American Menopause Society. Position Statement. Estrogen and Progestogen use in peri and postmenopausal women: October 20002. Menopause. 2003; 10(6):6-12.
66. Schneider HPG, Pines A, O´neil S, et al. International Menopause Society. Guidelines for hormone treatment of women in the menopausal transition and beyond. Position statement by the executive committee of the International Menopause Society. Climacteric. 2004; 7:8-11.
67. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Issues state of the art guide to hormone therapy. Obstet Gynecology. 20004. In prensa.
68. Lobo R. Views on recent trials and the future of hormonal therapy. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004; 47(2):424-427.
69. Cauley JA, Robbins J, chen Z, et al. Effects of estrogen plus progestin on risk of fracture and bone mineral density. The Women´s health initiative randomized trial. JAMA. 2003; 209:1729-1738.
70. Siris E, Miller P, Barret-Connor E, et al. Identification and Fracture Outcomes of Undiagnosed Low Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women: Results From the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment (NORA) JAMA. 2001; 286: 2815-2822.
71. Banks E, Beral V, Reeves G. Fracture incidence in relation to the pattern of use hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. JAMA. 2004; 291:2212-2220
72. La terapia hormonal sustitutiva es beneficiosa en mujeres postmenopausicas con arthritis reumatoide. J Rheumatology 2003; 7:1456-1463.
73. Greenspan SI, Resnick NM, Parker RA. Combination therapy with hormone replacement and alendronato for prevention of bone loss in elderly women. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003; 289:2552-2533.
74. Chlebowski R, Wactawski-Wende J, RitenBaugh C, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. N. Engl J Med. 2004; 350:991-1004.
75. Lacey JV, Mink PJ, Lubin JH, et al. Menopausal hormone replacement therapy and risk of ovarian cancer. JAMA. 2002; 288:334-341.
76. Wise PM, Dubal DB, Wilson ME, et al. Estrogens: trophics and protective factors in the adult brain. Front Neuroendocrinol 2001; 22:33-66.
77. Diaz Brinton R, Chen S, Montoya A, et al. The Women´s health initiative estrogen replacement therapy is neurotrophic and neuroprotective. Neurobiol Aging 2000; 21:475-496.
78. Skoog I, Gustafson D. HRT and dementia. J. Epidemiol Biostat. 1999; 4:227-251.
79. Henderson VW, Guthrie JR, Dudley Ec, et al. Estrogen exposures and memory at midlife. A population based study of women. Neurology. 2003; 60:1369-1371.
80. Grodstein F, Stamper M, Manson J, et al. Postmenopausal estrogen and progestin use and the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Eng J Med. 1996; 335: 453-461.
81. Miech RA, Breitner JC, Zandi PP, et al. Incidence of AD may decline in the early 90s for men, later for women. The Cache County Study. Neurology 2002; 58:209-218.
82. Zandi PP, Carlson MC, Plassman BL, et al Hormone replacement therapy and incidence of Alzheimer disease in older women. The Cache County Study. JAMA. 2002; 288:2123-2129.
83. Breitner JC, Wyse BW, Anthony JC, et al. APOE-4 count predicts age when prevalence of AD increases, then declines: the Cache County Study. Neurology 1999; 53:321-331.
84. Kawas C, Resnick S, Morrison A, et al. Un estudio prospectivo de terapia de reemplazo hormonal y riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad de Alzheimer. El estudio Longitudinal de envejecimiento de Baltimore. (Versión en español). Neurology 1997; 48:1517-1521.
85. Shumaker S, Legault C, Rapp S, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia and lid cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women. The Women´s health initiative Memory Study. A randomized controlled Trial. JAMA. 2003; 289:2651-2662.
86. Maskchak CA, Lobo RA, Dozono-takano R, et al. Comparison of pharmacodynamic properties of various estrogens formulations. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982; 144:511-518.
87. Shumaker S, Legaulth C, Kuller L. Conjugated equine estrogens and incidence of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women. Women´s Health Initiative Memory study. JAMA. 2004; 291(24):2947-2958.
88. Espeland MA, Rapp SR, Shumaker SA, et al Conjugated equine estrogens and global cognitive function in postmenopausal women. Women´s Health Initiative Memory Study. JAMA. 2004; 291:2959-2968.
89. Grady D, Yaffe K, Kristof M, et al. Effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on cognitive function: The Heart and estrogen / progestin replacement study. Am J. Med. 2002; 113:543-548.
90. Breteler MM, Claus JJ, Grobbee De, et al. Cardiovascular disease and distribution cognitive function in elderly people: The Rotterdam Study. BMJ. 1994; 308:1604 – 1608.
91. Herrington DM, Reboussin DM, Brosnihan B, et al. Effects of estrogen replacement on the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343:522-529.
92. Naftolin F, Taylor H, Karas R, et al. The women’s health initiative could not have detected cardio protective effects of starting hormone therapy during the menopausal transition. Fertil Steril. 2004; 81(6):1498-1501.
93. Lobo RA. Evaluation of cardiovascular event rates with hormone therapy in healthy, early postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. 2004; 168:482-484.
94. Lethaby AE, Coocke I, Ross M. Progesterone / Progestogen releasing intrauterine systems versus either placebo or any other medication for heavy menstrual bleeding. The Cochrane Library 2002. Issue 2.
95. Jensen J. Noncontraceptives applications of the levonorgestrel intrauterine systems. Current Women Health Report. 2002; 2:417-422

96. Wathen CN, Feig DS, Feightner JW, et al. Hormone replacement therapy for the primary prevention of chronic diseases: recommendation statement from the Canadian Task force on Prevention Health. Care Can. Med. Assoc. J. 2004; 170(10):1535-1537.
97. Yusuf Y, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factor associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (The INTERHEART Study): case-control study. Lancet. 2004; 354:937-952.
98. Grodstein F, Stampfer M. the epidemiology of coronary heart disease and estrogen replacement in post menopausal women. Prog cardiovascular dis. 1995;38:199-210.
99. Barret-Connor E, Grady D. Hormone replacement therapy , heart disease and other consideration. Am Rev. Public Health. 1998; 9:55-72.

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