Papel Endocrino de la Decidua y las Membranas Fetales

Embarazo: bebé 8, 12, 16, 20 semanas

Dr. Germán Barón Castañeda, M.D.

Estudios recientes han demostrado que estas estructuras no solo son capaces de producir y metabolizar hormonas, sino que también contienen receptores hormonales. Una de las principales hormonas producidas en la decidua es la prolactina, responsable de su alta concentración presente en el líquido amniótico. La decidua también produce relaxina que a diferencia de la prolactina, inhibe la contractilidad uterina; también aumenta la distensibilidad del cuello.

La decidua también puede actuar como órgano blanco; se ha demostrado que sus receptores para oxitocina aumentan en forma progresiva con la gestación, llegando a niveles pico en el trabajo de parto temprano, en forma paralela tanto en la decidua como en el miometrio. Se ha demostrado que la oxitocina puede inducir la producción de prostaglandinas por parte de la decidua pero no del miometrio.

La decidua tiene la capacidad de llevar a cabo la 1-a-hidroxilación para conversión a 1-25-hidroxi-vitamina D3, compuesto biológicamente activo; es posible que esto desempeñe papel en la modulación de la actividad del calcio en el miometrio o en la provisión de una fuente de vitamina D para el feto a través del líquido amniótico.

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